27 - An outline of Sources for the History of Education at London Metropolitan Archives
School Board for London
The School Board for London (SBL) was set up under the Public Elementary Education Act of 1870 for the whole of the 'metropolis', this being defined as the area coming under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Board of Works which in 1889 became the County of London. In its early years the School Board had great difficulty in carrying out its responsibilities in building sufficient schools to accommodate all London children of the elementary school class and persuading parents to send their children to school. It devoted great attention to school architecture and curriculum, and, once the problems of the early years had been overcome, to developing higher grade elementary education for older children and to assisting underfed and badly clothed children.
The SBL's higher grade or central schools brought it into conflict with the Education Department and the Technical Education Board. The 'Cockerton judgement' of 1901 ruled against the School Board on the grounds that it was illegal to spend rates on anything other than elementary education. As a result of these controversies the Education (London) Act of 1903 abolished the School Board for London and transferred its responsibilities to the London County Council in 1904.
Records include minutes, reports, correspondence, school inspectors' reports, papers relating to school curricula and methods of teaching, records of industrial schools, and minutes, reports, plans and contracts relating to school sites and buildings (SBL).
Technical Education Board
Set up by the London County Council (LCC) in 1893 under the Technical Education Acts of 1889-1891, it consisted of 20 members of the LCC and 15 representatives of other bodies with Sidney Webb as Chairman. Its priority was to assist and reinforce the existing supply of technical and secondary education. A junior county scholarship scheme was established to enable children from elementary schools to continue their education at secondary schools and technical institutes which were awarded grants. The London Day Training College (later the London University Institute of Education), the Central School of Arts and Crafts, and specialist colleges for photography and photoengraving, carriage building, typography and printing, leather dying and tanning, and the furniture trades were established by the Technical Education Board (TEB).
Records include minutes, agendas, reports and correspondence.
London County Council
The LCC was established in 1889. The Education (London) Act of 1903 transferred to the LCC from 1 May 1904 the powers and responsibilities of both the School Board for London and the Technical Education Board. Its immediate priorities were to integrate the Board Schools and the 'non-provided' schools mostly owned by religious organisations into a single coherent service and to develop secondary education. The number of scholarships was increased and new county secondary schools, mainly for girls, were opened by the Council. New central schools, technical institutes, and teacher training colleges were established. The LCC set up school welfare and medical services. Amongst major developments after the Second World War the London County Council strongly promoted comprehensive secondary schools.
The LCC was abolished in 1965 and responsibility for education within the former County of London was transferred to the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA).
Records include minutes, agenda papers and presented papers of the LCC Education Committee and its many sub-committees 1904-1965 (LCC/MIN/02843-04365), records of the LCC Education Officer's Department (including minutes, reports, and papers inherited from the School Board for London) 1854-1972 (LCC/EO), records of the School Health Service 1902-1965 (LCC/PH/SHS), and plans and policy files relating to school buildings 1873-1979 (LCC/AR/CB, LCC/AR/SCH).
A separate information leaflet No. 32 The evacuation of children from the County of London during the Second World War 1939-1945 is available from London Metropolitan Archives (LMA).
Inner London Education Authority
The ILEA was responsible for education in the inner London area (formerly the County of London) from 1965 until 1990, when responsibility for education was transferred to the inner London borough councils and the City of London. The ILEA was technically a special committee of the Greater London Council (GLC), whose members comprised 40 GLC councillors representing the inner London boroughs and the City of London and 13 members appointed by each of the twelve inner London borough councils and City of London Corporation. The ILEA worked through an Education Committee to which up to 19 additional members were appointed.
The records of the ILEA have not yet been fully catalogued. Details of those records which have been listed are given below. Access to other records is by prior appointment only. Certain records containing confidential information relating to named individuals are closed to public consultation.
- Inner London Education Authority and Education Committee minutes 1964-1990 (on open shelves in the Information Area).
- Clerk's Department 1941-1990 (ILEA/CL)
- Schools Department Divisional Offices 1-10 1889-1990 (ILEA/DO01-DO10)
- Building and Property Services Department Architecture Branch 1875-1990 (ILEA/DBPS)
- Official publications
Middlesex School Boards
Following the 1870 Public Elementary Education Act, school boards were established in most places in Middlesex except Ealing. In 1903 they were abolished and their responsibilities transferred to either the Middlesex County Council (MCC) or to the municipal borough councils and urban district councils. LMA holds minutes of the Ashford, Edgware, Hampton Wick, Hanwell, Harmondsworth, Kingsbury, Norwood, Old Brentford, and Staines School Boards (MCC/SB). Enquiries concerning those Middlesex school boards whose records are not held by LMA should be addressed to the appropriate London Borough Archives or Local Studies Collection.
Middlesex County Council Technical Education Committee
This was established by MCC under the Technical Instruction Acts of 1889 and 1891. The Committee set up a scheme to provide scholarships for boys to attend secondary schools in Middlesex and neighbouring counties. It established polytechnics, institutes, and secondary schools and became heavily involved in running independent schools and institutes such as Godolphin School, Hammersmith. Following the 1902 Education Act, the Technical Education Committee was merged into the Middlesex County Council Education Committee in 1903.
Records include minutes, correspondence, papers, and scholarship examination papers (MCC/MIN/13/001-026, MCC/EO/TCOM).
Middlesex County Council
As a result of the 1902 Education Act, in 1903 MCC became responsible for secondary and technical education throughout the county, but took over responsibility for elementary education from the various school boards in the more rural parts of the county only. Part III of the 1902 Education Act laid down that within a county council area any boroughs of 10,000 or more population or urban districts with over 20,000 population should be the local education authority for elementary education in that area. Middlesex had a larger number of these 'Part III' education authorities than any other county in England and Wales covering three quarters of the total population of the county.
Rapid urbanisation of Middlesex between 1903 and 1939 led to a prolonged period of school building. In 1902 there were only five endowed and four council provided secondary schools in Middlesex. By 1939 the MCC had established 42 county secondary schools, including county or municipal schools with a more 'modern' and varied curriculum than the old grammar schools. Further education was also developed with the opening of new technical colleges and the rebuilding and enlargement of the existing polytechnics.
The 1944 Education Act abolished Part III authorities. The MCC accordingly became the local education authority for all forms of education throughout the county. However, certain functions including the preparation of development plans were delegated to municipal boroughs and urban districts of a certain size which were known as Excepted Districts. Other areas were grouped into divisions with more limited delegated functions. Between 1944 and 1953 the MCC embarked on a massive school building programme opening over 100 new schools to replace schools destroyed or badly damaged by bombing, to provide for rapid population growth, and to establish the separate primary and secondary schools required by the 1944 Education Act.
The MCC ceased to exist on 31 March 1965 as a result of the 1963 London Government Act. Responsibility for education in Middlesex passed to the newly created London Boroughs or to the County Councils of Hertfordshire and Surrey.
Records include minutes of the MCC Education Committee and its sub-committees (MCC/MIN/13/027-677), records of Middlesex County Council Education Department (MCC/EO), and records, including contracts, plans, and photographs, of MCC Clerk's Department relating to the purchase of school sites, and building of schools and colleges (MCC/CL/L/EO, MCC/CL/L/CON, MCC/CL/PRO).
The City of London Corporation administers five educational establishments, of which three (unusually for a local authority) are private schools. The five are the City of London School, City of London School for Girls, City of London Freemen's School, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Sir John Cass Foundation Primary School. LMA holds most of the administrative records of these schools' committees and boards of governors, and some records of pupils and staff, although other records remain with the schools.
The City of London School (CLA/053)
The oldest of the City's schools is the boys' school, the City of London School, which opened in 1837 following an Act of Parliament of 1834. It was funded by money from a rent charge on properties bequeathed in 1442 to the City by John Carpenter, a Town Clerk of the City of London. It was first built on the site of Honey Lane Market, Milk Street, Cheapside, but moved to Victoria Embankment in 1882. It moved again in 1986, when a new purpose-built building was opened in Queen Victoria Street, still within the City of London. LMA holds an indexed typescript register of pupils 1837-1900 which gives some personal information on the majority of pupils between those dates. This information was collected in the early 20th century from questionnaires sent to former pupils by the School and LMA has many, but not all, of the original questionnaires. LMA also has questionnaires for pupils who were at the School 1901-1945, although these are not indexed and the more recent ones will be subject to data protection restrictions. Other pupil records, including recent ones, are believed to be held by the School.
The City of London Freemen's School (CLA/055)
This School opened as the Freemen's Orphan School in Brixton in 1854, for the education of the orphans of City Freemen. It was a mixed school from the start, admitting both boys and girls, although boys outnumbered girls by about 2:1 until the 20th century. It changed its name to the City of London Freemen's School and moved to Ashtead, Surrey in 1926. From 1924 it accepted paying boy pupils and from 1933 paying girl pupils were accepted. LMA holds the pupil register 1853-1955 and several hundred pupil application forms for the period 1854-1943 (subject to data protection restrictions).
The City of London School for Girls (CLA/054)
The City of London School for Girls was established by the Corporation with money from a bequest from William Ward of Brixton. It opened in Carmelite Street, Victoria Embankment in 1894, and moved to a new building in the Barbican in 1969. Unfortunately there are few surviving pupil records for this School at LMA and the School itself has only fairly recent ones. LMA holds the surviving administrative records for the School as well as copies of the school magazine 1897-2006 and records of the Old Girls Association.
The Guildhall School of Music and Drama (CLA/056)
The Guildhall School of Music and Drama (GSMD) evolved from the Guildhall Orchestral Society, and was founded as the Guildhall School of Music in 1880 in Aldermanbury. It moved to John Carpenter Street, near Victoria Embankment in 1886, and to the Barbican in 1977. The student record cards for pupils back to about the period of the First World War (1914-1918), but records of earlier pupils are sparse, and virtually limited to the listings of prize-winners in the early prospectuses, which are held at LMA for 1887-1963 (incomplete). LMA also has other pupil records up to about 1968, scrapbooks of newspaper cuttings 1878-1970, 1976, 1987-1997 and other records. Pupil and staff records are subject to access restrictions due to data protection legislation. Later pupil records remain with the Registry Section of the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (Barbican, London EC2Y 8DT, telephone 020 7628 2571.
The Sir John Cass Foundation Primary School (CLC/215)
The Cass School was established in 1710 near St Botolph Aldgate by the will of Sir John Cass for the education of poor children in Portsoken Ward. The school subsequently moved to Church Row (1762) and then to Jewry Street (1869) by which time it was attended by 110 boys and 90 girls. In 1908 the School was transferred to a new building erected on a site extending from Duke Street to Mitre Street. Duke Street was renamed Duke's Place in 1939. The 1944 Education Act required primary and secondary education to be separated so the secondary part of the Cass School amalgamated with the Red Coat School, Stepney to form the Sir John Cass's Foundation and Red Coat School in Stepney Way. The Sir John Cass Foundation Primary School remained in Duke's Place. On the abolition of the ILEA in 1990 the City of London Corporation became the maintaining authority for this voluntary-aided school.
Pupil records are generally 19th century and early 20th century in date, but board minutes from 1758 (Ms 31010/4-14) include the names of children admitted.
London County Council and Inner London Education Authority Schools
The records of the London County Council Education Officer's Department and the Inner London Education Authority Schools Department include minutes of school governing bodies, admission and discharge registers, log books, and inspectors' reports on individual schools. Most of the school admission and discharge registers 1840-1911 have been digitised by Ancestry. More recent school registers and log books are not available for consultation due to data protection.
Middlesex County Council Schools
The records of Middlesex County Council include few records of individual MCC schools. For departmental records kept by the Education Department see MCC/EO/PS/02/001-101. For minutes of managers and governors see MCC/EO/PS/03-04. For a log book for Kingsbury Board School 1876-1915 see MCC/EO/PS/05/042. Any references to individual schools in the list of the records of Middlesex County Council Education Department should be found in the index at the end of the list.
Church and Charity Schools
Minutes of governors of non-provided schools (i.e. church schools and other charitable foundations) 1854-1969 can be found amongst the records of the London County Council Education Officer's Department (LCC/EO/PS/08/1-24) as can school inspectors' reports 1904-1970 (LCC/EO/PS/12/NP/A-W).
In the administrative county of Middlesex church and other charitably run elementary schools became in 1903 the responsibility of MCC in the more rural parts of the county and the responsibility of the borough and urban district councils in the more densely populated areas. Records of Uxbridge British School and some church and charity schools may be found amongst the records of Middlesex County Council Education Department. See MCC/EO/PS/4/1-174 for minutes 1723-1945 and MCC/EO/PS/5/1-61 for log books and admission registers 1813-1953.
Records relating to Church of England schools frequently form part of the parish records for London and Middlesex which have been deposited in LMA (except for the City of Westminster). Records of Methodist Day and Sunday Schools, British Schools, and Congregationalist Sunday Schools may be found amongst the records of Nonconformist churches deposited in LMA. See especially the records of the City Road Circuit (N/M/41/054-057), London East Circuit (N/M/14/1-2), and Golden Lane Sunday School, later Radnor Street Day and Sunday Schools (N/M/17/001-052).
Many charitably run schools have deposited their archives in LMA. They include Archbishop Temple's School, Lambeth (A/LPB, A/LPS), Archbishop Tenison's Girls School, Lambeth (A/ATG, A/LPS), Archbishop Tenison's Grammar School (A/ATB, ACC/2692), Bacon Free School, Bermondsey (A/BFS), Beaufoy Ragged School, Lambeth (A/BFY), Christ Church Parochial Schools, Southwark (A/CCP), Christ's Hospital (CLC/067), Cripplegate Schools Foundation (P69/GIS/D), Davenant Foundation Grammar School, Whitechapel (A/DAV), Elizabeth Newcomen School, Southwark (A/NWC), Field Lane Foundation (LMA/4060), Jews' Free School, Stepney (LMA/4046), Raine's Schools Foundation, Stepney (ACC/1811), John Roan School, Greenwich (LMA/4442), King Edward's Schools, Witley (CLC/275), Royal Commercial Travellers' Schools, Pinner (ACC/923, ACC/992), Saint Mark Kennington Schools (A/KNS), Saint Mary Newington Schools (A/SMN), Sir John Cass's Foundation (CLC/215), Sir Walter St John's School, Battersea (ACC/2321), and Westminster Jews' Free School (LMA/4047). The archives of the Foundling Hospital (A/FH) and of Sutton's Hospital, Charterhouse (ACC/1876) also include educational records, though later records of Charterhouse School are kept at the school.
Charitable schools for the education of poor boys and girls were established in most City of London wards and surviving records are held by LMA. A number of City ward and parish schools subsequently merged with the Cass School and were administered by Sir John Cass's Foundation whose records are also deposited at LMA (see below).
Livery Company Schools
LMA holds the records of over 20 schools run by or in association with City of London Livery Companies. Many of these are ancient foundations with some dating back to the sixteenth century. The majority were established and endowed by private individuals who were usually (but not always) members of a Livery Company. The City Companies were seen as enduring institutions which could be entrusted with the management of a charitable bequest long after the founder's death. However, with the resurgence of interest in technical education in the nineteenth century, several Companies established new schools out of their own funds. Schools associated with Livery Companies can be found across the country, from London and the Home Counties to Cheshire and Lancashire, and from Cornwall and Monmouth to Norfolk. Most are now in the independent sector but the Companies generally retain some level of involvement. For full details of surviving records see City Livery Companies and related organisations: a guide to their archives in Guildhall Library (Guildhall Library, 3rd. ed, 1989); a copy is available at the Information Desk. Livery company records should be consulted at Guildhall Library.
Most of the Boards of Guardians of the Poor for London and Middlesex maintained residential schools where the children for whom they were responsible were cared for and educated. Many of the residential schools for London children were situated outside the metropolitan area. Typically the records of the Boards of Guardians for London held by LMA include minutes of the Board, minutes of the School Visiting Committee, correspondence with the Poor Law Commissioners, Poor Law Board, Local Government Board, and Ministry of Health, and registers of children and staff.
Before the Boards of Guardians were established in the 1830s (though not until 1867 in some London parishes), workhouse schools were maintained by parish authorities. Any surviving records may be found either amongst the parish records deposited in LMA (except for the City of London and part of Westminster) or in the archives of the London Boroughs. See for example the parish records of St. Marylebone Parish Church (P89/MRY1) and St. Leonard, Shoreditch (P91/LEN) held by LMA.
The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1844 gave the Poor Law Commissioners powers to combine parishes and unions into school districts for the education of children in the care of the Boards of Guardians. LMA hold the records of the Poor Law School Districts formed by London poor law unions and parishes. In 1930 the Poor Law residential schools and children's homes were taken over by the London and Middlesex County Councils.
City and Guilds of London Institute (CLC/211)
Established in 1878 by the City of London Corporation and Livery Companies to improve technical education through examination, grants and establishment of technical institutes. As well as the City and Guilds College in Kensington, the Institute ran Finsbury Technical College, South London Technical Art School in Kennington, and the Leather Trades School in Bethnal Green and the archives include records of these colleges.
The SBL set up evening continuation classes in 1882. For committee minutes 1884-1909 see SBL/160-188 and for reports, returns, prospectuses, and syllabuses 1884-1909 see SBL/1456-1461. The TEB, LCC, MCC and ILEA maintained colleges, schools of art, technical schools and evening institutes as well as assisting independent institutions such as polytechnics, all of which are documented in their archives. See, for example, LCC/EO/HFE/04-12 for minutes, reports, files and registers relating to colleges and evening institutes and LCC/EO/HFE/13 and ILEA/PS/FHE/01 for prospectuses of individual technical establishments, evening institutes, schools of art, colleges and polytechnics which were run or assisted by the LCC or ILEA 1905-1985.
Beaumont Institution and People's Palace, Stepney (A/BPP)
Founded in 1840 as the Beaumont Philosophical Institution 'for the mental and moral improvement' of the local population, the main hall of the People's Palace in Mile End Road was opened by Queen Victoria in 1887. The East London Technical College developed from this charity to become Queen Mary College in 1934 after its separation from the People's Palace.
Frances Martin College (A/FMC)
Founded in 1874 as the College for Working Women by dissentient members of the Council of the Working Women's College. Its aim was to provide women occupied during the day with a higher education than had normally been within their reach.
London School of Jewish Studies (LMA/4180)
Founded by Chief Rabbi Nathan Adler in 1855 as Jews' College to train ministers, readers and teachers. Records containing sensitive or confidential information are closed.
The Sir John Cass Foundation (CLC/215)
The Cass School was established in 1710 near St Botolph Aldgate by the will of Sir John Cass for the education of poor children in Portsoken Ward and endowed with estates in West Tilbury, Bromley by Bow and Hackney. A Chancery scheme of 1748 established a board of trustees to administer the charity but by the late 19th century the estates were very valuable leading to pressure for reform of the charity. A Charity Commission scheme of 1895 set up the Sir John Cass Foundation to administer the school and the estates. It also established the Sir John Cass Technical Institute in Jewry Street (1902) which became the Sir John Cass College in 1950, and then amalgamated in 1971 with the City of London College and King Edward VII Nautical Institute to become the City of London Polytechnic; the Polytechnic amalgamated in 1990 with the London College of Furniture to become London Guildhall University. The 1895 scheme also led to the establishment of a Sir John Cass Hackney Technical Institute, which was taken over by the London County Council in 1909.
The records include board minutes 1726-1960, financial records 1720-1973, legal papers c.1726-1981, correspondence 1842-1953, estate records 1664-1930, ledgers and accounts of the Sir John Cass Technical Institute 1902-1945, and records of the individual schools associated with the Foundation.
University and other Settlements
As well as the archives of Toynbee Hall, the first university settlement founded by Canon Samuel Barnett in Whitechapel in 1884 (A/TOY, ACC/2486), LMA holds two collections of the correspondence of Samuel Barnett and his wife, Henrietta, 1883-1932 (F/BAR, LMA/4266), and records of Lady Margaret Hall Settlement (A/LMH), Mary Ward Settlement (LMA/4524) and Time and Talents Association (A/TT).
Working Men's College (LMA/4535)
The records comprise Council and committee minutes; administrative papers; finance; photographs; exam papers; students' records; correspondence; architect's plans; Frances Martin College - correspondence and minutes, photographs 1854-1990. Until these records have been catalogued it is necessary to make an appointment at least a week in advance in order to consult them.
The supplementary school movement developed in Britain from the 1960s, mainly as Saturday Schools to provide children with specific teaching which reflected their personal and community needs. In the Black Caribbean community the movement was driven by such works as Bernard Coard's How the West Indian Child is Made Educationally Subnormal in the British School System (1971), which emphasised the effect of educationalists' prejudicial attitudes and government policy in the academic underachievement of black children.
Records include the Community Education and Careers Branch of Inner London Education Authority's grant files (ILEA/PS/CE) with submitted annual reports for supplementary schools including Black Caribbean and Bengali communities. Correspondence, leaflets, exercise books and photographs (LMA/4463/D/11) are also held for Peter Moses Supplementary School, Ealing founded by Eric and Jessica Huntley and named after Dominican born Peter Moses (1945-1972) who was actively involved in Black politics including the Black Liberation Front and the Black supplementary school movement. Records of Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications Limited include a detailed manuscript, 'West Indians' Emphasis to Alternative Supplementary Education Sample Survey in Hackney', submitted for publication by Joseph Ramlal, 1981 (LMA/4462/D/01/311).
The School Board for London set up pupil teachers' centres from 1885. The Technical Education Board established the London Day Training College in 1902. In 1906 the London County Council opened its first residential teacher training college at Avery Hill. Records of the LCC Education Department relate to independent teacher training colleges as well as those maintained by the LCC (LCC/EO/TRA/01-05). Middlesex County Council took over Maria Grey Training College in 1939 and Trent Park Training College in 1950. LMA also holds the records of the National Society's Training College of Domestic Subjects (ACC/900). Founded in 1893, the college moved to Berridge House, Hampstead in 1908. It amalgamated with St. Katherine's College, Tottenham, in 1964 and closed the following year.
LMA holds the records of the Schoolmistresses' and Governesses' Benevolent Institution founded in 1841 (LMA/4459). The Cholmondeley Charities (A/CHM) and Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy (A/CSC) for the relief of widows and children of the clergy apprenticed many clergy daughters to schoolmistresses or prepared them to become governesses.
Records of professional associations and teaching unions include the Association of Principals of Technical Institutions (A/PTI), the London Head Teachers Association (ACC/2794), the Clapham Branch of the London Pupil Teachers Association Girls' Division (LMA/4000), Middlesex Education Society (ACC/915), Hendon and Finchley Teachers Associations (ACC/3152), Middlesex County Teachers Association (ACC/916) and the London and Middlesex Associations of the National Union of Teachers (ACC/2902).
The following organisations, whose archives are held by LMA, had a strong interest in educational issues.
Board of Deputies of British Jews (ACC/3121) and the Office of the Chief Rabbi (ACC/2805)
These records, which are available only with the written permission of the depositors, reflect the concern of the Anglo-Jewish Community with the provision of Jewish education and the need to combat racism, anti-Zionism and religious discrimination in local authority and private schools and colleges. For further information see Information Leaflet No.16 Records of the Anglo-Jewish Community at LMA.
Charity Organisation Society (A/FWA)
Founded in 1869, renamed the Family Welfare Association in 1946, it reported and campaigned on the subjects of school children 'alleged to be in want of food', reformatory and industrial schools, the care and relief of crippled and invalid children, school care committees, and the medical treatment of school children in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The records of the Charity Organisation Society Enquiry Department include files on Mansfield House University Settlement, Oxford House, Bethnal Green, St. Agatha's Mission and Finsbury Polytechnic, residential schools, and charities for the education of children with special needs.
London Labour Party (ACC/2417)
Formed in 1915, it was reconstituted in 1965 as the Greater London Labour Party, whose archives are also held by LMA, but have not yet been catalogued (ACC/2959). The London Labour Party archives include copies of the London Labour Party Circular (later London News), publications and papers on education, and photographs of schools.
National Education Association (A/NEA)
Founded in 1888 to promote a 'free progressive system of national education, publicly controlled and free from sectarian interest'.
Socialist Educational Association (A/NLT)
Before 1961 known as the National Association of Labour Teachers which acted as a pressure group and forum for debate on educational issues through its conferences, meetings, and publications.
The works listed below are a small part of the very extensive holdings of LMA library, and any researcher is strongly advised to use the subject and author catalogues to discover the full extent of the collections. The main area of the subject catalogue dealing with education is at 22.0, and includes sections not only on individual schools and education in London generally, but also on the curriculum, teacher training, further and adult education, etc.
In the entries below the library references are given in brackets.
General information on sources
- Barr, B. Histories of Girls' Schools and related biographical material. Librarians of Institutes and Schools of Education, 1984. (8.6)
- Cook, T.G. (ed.) Local studies and the history of education. Methuen, 1972. (22.0 HIS). This work includes essays on E.R. Robson and the Board Schools of London by Malcolm Seaborne and Topographical resources: private and secondary education in Middlesex from the sixteenth to the twentieth century by Margaret Bryant.
Guildhall Library. Education in London before 1870: a handlist of selected items in Guildhall Library in The Guildhall Miscellany vol III, 1969-71, pp218-232. (67.0)
- Higson, C.W.J. Sources for the history of education: a list of material (including school books) contained in the Libraries of the Institutes and schools of Education. Library Association, 1967 (8.6)
- Stephens, W.B. and Uniwin, R.W. Materials for the local and regional study of schooling, 1700-1900. British Records Association, 1987. (60.36 STE)
- Surrey County Record Office. A bibliography of the history of education in Surrey. The Record Office, 1952. (P8.6)
- Thoms, D.W. The history of technical education in London, 1904-1940. History of Education Society, 1976. (P8.6)
General works on the history of education in London
- Maclure, Stuart. One hundred years of London education 1870-1970. Allen Lane, 1970 (22.06 MAC)
- Bryant, Margaret. The London experience of secondary education. Athlone P. (22.13 BRY) (Covers the period from the middle ages to the end of the 19th century)
- Devereux, William. Adult education in inner London 1870-1980. Shepheard-Walwyn/ILEA, 1982. (22.3 DEV)
- Ringshall, Ron et al. The urban school: buildings for education in London 1870-1980. GLC/Architectural Press, 1983. (22.9 GLC)
- Victoria History of the Counties of England. A history of the County of Middlesex, vol. 1. Oxford UP, 1969. (97.0 VCH) - includes sections on The education of the working classes to 1870 and Private education from the sixteenth century
School Board for London 1870-1904
A full set of the indexed minutes of the School Board for London is available on the open shelves in the Information Area (22.05 SBL), although a more vivid description of debates in the period December 1891 to March 1898 can be gained from the reports printed from notes taken by the Church Education and Voluntary Schools Defence Union (22.05 SBL). A set of annual reports is also available (22.05 SBL): the Final Report of the Board is particularly useful as it contains an extensive description of the work of the Board over the whole period of its existence. A similar volume The work of the London School Board (22.05 SBL) was produced in 1900 for the Paris exhibition of that year.
Among the other publications and reports of the Board are the following:
- Return of all members of the Board during its existence 1904. (22.05 SBL)
- List of schools under the School Board of London 1893
- Reports of the School Management Committee 1873-1902/3. (22.05 SBL)
(Amongst the information contained in these are the names of teachers at Board schools, with an index from 1887/8; summaries of Government Inspectors' reports on individual schools to 1886 (after this date the reports are contained in a separate appendix to the report of this Committee); and from 1886 onwards sketch plans of most schools).
A number of contemporary and later publications deal with the work of the Board. A few are listed below:
- Gautrey, Thomas. 'Lux mihi laus': School Board memories. Link House Publications, . (22.05 GAU)(Gautrey was the first secretary of the London Teachers Association and a member of the Board)
- Philpott, Hugh B. London at school: the story of the School Board 1870-1904. Unwin, 1904. (22.05 PHI)
- Weiner, Deborah E.B. The institution of popular education: architectural form and social policy in the London Board Schools, 1870-1904. Princeton Univ. Ph.D, 1984. (22.05 WEI)
London County Council 1904-1965
Full sets of the indexed minutes of both the Council and of its Education Committee are available on the open shelves in the Information Area (18.6 and 22.06 respectively). Annual reports were published by the Education Committee up to the Second World War as part of the annual report of the Council (18.7 (1)). Thereafter a series of reports were published at irregular intervals: Education in London 1945-1954, 1954-1957 and 1957-1962 (22.06 LCC). In addition the School Medical Officer published an annual report from 1904/5 (18.7 (5) - on open shelves from 1938). From 1909/10 the LCC published Education Service Particulars (entitled Education Service Information from 1951) (22.06 LCC), which lists all the Council's schools together with their addresses and headteachers. Among the other useful publications of the LCC are a 1931 return of floor plans of LCC and non-provided elementary schools (22.12 LCC).
Comparatively little appears to have been written on the LCC as an education authority, but Achievement: a short history of the London County Council by W. Eric Jackson (Longmans, 1965) (18.0 1965) does contain a chapter on education, while there are also relevant essays in Politics and the people of London: the London County Council 1889-1965 edited by Andrew Saint. Hambledon Press, 1989 (18.0 1989).
Inner London Education Authority 1965-1990
LMA has sets of the indexed minutes of the Authority and of its education committee for the period up to 1990 (22.062), as well as many of the publications produced by ILEA.
Middlesex County Council 1889-1965
On the open shelves in the Information Area are sets of abstracts of the Council minutes, together with bound sets of committee reports, including from 1903 those of the Education Committee (97.091). Below are listed some of the other publications of the Council held in the Library:
- Annual reports of the School Medical Officer 1908-1964. (97.092 MID)
- Primary and secondary education in Middlesex 1900-1965. (22.04 MID)
- Secondary schools and technical institutes in the administrative County of Middlesex 1915. (22.14 MID)
- Some types of secondary school in the administrative County of Middlesex 1913. (22.13 MID)
If the history of an individual school is being researched the publications described above may contain much useful information, particularly if the school was established or run by one of the education authorities listed earlier. Below are some other sources which may be of help:
Published histories of schools can be found in the library subject catalogue at 22.12 for elementary and board schools, 22.13 for secondary schools, 22.15 for technical and training institutes and 22.17 for reformatory and industrial schools. Also here are prospectuses and pamphlets produced for ceremonial openings.
Brief details of boys' public and independent schools can be found in the Public schools year book 1910 to date (entitled the Public and preparatory schools yearbook from 1945) (22.13 PUB). Similar information for girls' schools is available in The Girls school year book 1912 to date (entitled the Independent schools yearbook: girls' schools from 1986). (22.13 GIR).
Details of many charity and industrial schools can be found in the Annual charities register and digest 1895 to date (entitled the Charities digest from 1970) (20.2 CHA). For charity schools see also the various reports on endowed charities and educational charities made by Charity Commissioners 1815-1908. These are detailed in our library catalogue under reference 20.205 CHA.
Small private schools were very common in the Victorian period, but can be very difficult to track down. London directories, of which the library has extensive holdings, contain lists of both public and private schools in the 'trades' or 'classified' section from c.1840 on. Other sources are suggested by Margaret Bryant in her essay in Local studies and the history of education edited by T.G. Cook.
Many general works on the history of a particular parish or area will include sections on local schools - see the relevant section in the library subject catalogue.
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