London Metropolitan Archives - Item Details

METROPOLITAN ASYLUMS BOARD

Date of Creation:

1867-1947

Reference Code:

MAB

Scope and Content:
  • MAB/1-142: Board Minutes and Agendas.
    MAB/143-1448: Minutes, agendas and papers of Committees and Sub-Committees (Special and Joint, Ambulance, Asylums, Casual Wards, Children's, Contracts, Fever Patients, Finance, General Purposes, Hampstead Asylum, Hospitals, Hours and Wages of Staff, Law and Parliamentary, Metropolitan Common Poor Fund, Nursing Staff, Sanatorium (Tuberculosis), Smallpox Patients, Training Ship Exmouth, Works).
    MAB/1449-1457: Registers of members.
    MAB/1458-1493: Year books.
    MAB/1494-1547: Letters from the Poor Law Board, Local Government Board and Ministry of Health.
    MAB/1548-1562: Orders of the Poor Law Board and Local Government Board.
    MAB/1563-1572: Regulations and standing orders.
    MAB/1573-1576: Seal books.
    MAB/1577-1684: Annual reports of the Board and its committees.
    MAB/1685-1721: Miscellaneous printed reports and papers.
    MAB/1722-1735: Legal papers.
    MAB/1736-1750: Lists of staff and papers relating to staff.
    MAB/1751-1836: Statistics.
    MAB/1837-1847: Press cuttings.
    MAB/1848-1872: Contracts.
    MAB/1873-2247: Financial records.
    MAB/2248-2255: Plans.
    MAB/2256-2633: Papers, reports, etc., relating to institutions run by the Board.

    Index of institutions found in the records with their reference numbers (MAB/xxxx):
    Atlas Hospital Ship, 1069
    Banstead Road School (see Downs School)
    Belmont Asylum, 0239-0242, 2256-2267
    Bethnal Green Casual Ward, 2590
    Bridge School, 0500-0505, 0600, 2268-2272
    Brook Hospital, 0145, 0857-0872, 2273-2280
    Camberwell Green Remand Home, 2606-2617
    Caterham Asylum/ Hospital, 0145a, 0243-0286, 1855, 2281-2299
    Caterham Farm, 0285
    Chelsea Casual Ward, 2591-2593
    Clapton Asylum, 0801-0802
    Cleveland Street Children's Infirmary, 0505-0507, 2300-2305a
    Colindale Hospital, 1251-1256, 2306
    Darenth School, 0145, 0287-0335a, 1856, 2307-2325
    Dartford Institution, 0968
    Deptford Hospital (see also South Eastern Hospital), 0144
    Downs Hospital, 0509-0514, 0600, 2325-2331
    Dreadnought Hospital, 1068
    East Cliff House (see also Princess Mary's Hospital, Margate), 0600
    Eastern Hospital, 0886-0918, 0968, 1857, 2332-2355
    Edmonton Epileptic Colony, 0336-0341
    Elm Grove Home for Defective Children, 2356-2357
    Endymion Hospital Ship, 1069
    for Hospital Ships see Joyce Green Hospital
    Fountain Hospital, 0342-0350, 0515, 0792, 0921-0927, 0950-0964, 2358-2362
    Fulham Hospital (see also Western Hospital), 0144
    Geneva Cross, 1692-1693
    Goldie Leigh Homes, 0516-0521, 2373-2375
    Gore Farm, 0928-0944, 0967, 1858, 2363-2372
    Grove Hospital, 0145, 0945-0964, 2376-2379
    Grove Park Hospital, 1257-1258, 2380-2382
    Hackney Casual Ward, 2594-2596
    Hampstead Asylum, 0801, 0803
    Hampstead Hospital (see also North Western Hospital), 0143, 0145a
    Hampstead Temporary Hospital, 0143
    Hanwell Home, 0522
    Harrow Road Remand Home, 2618-2625
    High Wood Hospital,
    High Wood School, 0523-0536, 0600-0601, 2383-2389
    Highdown (see King George V Sanatorium)
    Hither Green Lodge, 0731
    Homerton Fever Hospital (see also Eastern Hospital), 0145a
    Joyce Green Hospital Farm, 0968
    Joyce Green Hospital, 2390-2391
    King George V Sanatorium, 1259-1260, 2392-2394
    Kingswood Road, Fulham, 0537-0543
    Lambeth Casual Ward, 2597
    Leavesden Asylum, 0145a, 0351-0397, 1860, 2395-2407
    Lloyd House, 0545-0547, 2408
    Long Reach Hospital, 2250
    Millfield, 1261-1268
    North Eastern Hospital (Tottenham), 0967, 0994-1012, 2409-2410
    North Western Hospital, 0145a, 0965, 0966, 1013-1038, 1861, 2251, 2411-2423
    Northern Defective Homes, 0600
    Northern Hospital (Winchmore Hill), 0969-0993
    Park Hospital, 0145, 0548-560, 1039-1044, 1446, 2424-2434
    Pentonville Road Remand Home, 2626-2635
    Pinewood Sanatorium, 1269-1271, 2435
    Poplar Casual Ward, 2598-2601
    Princess Mary's Hospital, 1272-1281, 2436-2441
    Queen Mary's Hospital (Carshalton), 1045-1061, 1445, 2442-2449
    Rochester House, 0398-0401, 2450
    Rushington, 0600
    Saint Anne's Home, Herne Bay, 0569-0576, 0600
    Saint George's Home, 1251-1256, 2451-2452
    Saint Luke's Hospital, Lowestoft, 1283-1285, 2453-2454
    Saint Margaret's Hospital, 1063-1065
    Saint Pancras Casual Ward, 2601
    Sheffield Street Hospital, 1066-1067
    South Eastern Hospital (Deptford) (see also Deptford Hospital), 0967, 0968, 1116-1140, 2252, 2456-2467
    Southern (Carshalton) Hospital, 0145, 0968, 2455
    Southern (Convalescent) Home (see also Gore Farm)
    Southern Defective Home, 0600
    Southern Hospital (see also Queen Mary's Hospital)
    Southwark Casual Ward, 2602
    Stockwell Hospital ,0145a
    Sutton Schools (see Belmont Asylum)
    Tooting Bec Asylum, 0412-0432, 1447-1448, 2486-2491
    Training Ship Exmouth, 1287-1362, 2492-2581
    Western Hospital (see also Fulham Hospital), 0145a, 1201-1223, 2582-2583
    White Oak School, 0600, 0603-0617, 2584-2588
    Whitechapel Casual Ward, 2603
    Witham Schools, 0795
Extent: 180.36 linear metres
Classification: LOCAL AUTHORITIES: LONDON-WIDE ELECTED BODIES
Site Location: London Metropolitan Archives
Level of Description:
    Collection

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Administrative History:
  • The Metropolitan Asylums Board was established by an Order of the Poor Law Board, 15 May 1867. This Order combined the London unions and parishes in to one 'Metropolitan Asylum District' to comply with the stipulations of the Metropolitan Poor Act of 29 March 1867 (30 & 31 Vict c 6). This Act provided for "the Establishment in the Metropolis of Asylums for the Sick, Insane, and other Classes of the Poor and of Dispensaries; and for the Distribution over the Metropolis of Portions of the Charge for Poor Relief; and for other Purposes relating to Poor Relief". The Metropolitan Asylum District was responsible for "the reception and relief of poor persons infected with or suffering from fever or the disease of smallpox or who may be insane".

    The first Metropolitan Asylums Board consisted of 60 members, 45 represented the parishes and unions of London and 15 were nominated by the Poor Law Board (afterwards by the Local Government Board and latterly by the Ministry of Health). The number was subsequently increased to 73 members.

    Fever and smallpox epidemics had revealed deficiencies in Poor Law provision in the Metropolitan area. In most unions patients suffering from all diseases were crowded together in the workhouse infirmaries. The Boards first task was to devise ways of isolating patients with infectious diseases. The main difficulties confronting the Board were the spasmodic nature of the demands for hospital accommodation during the first 30 years of its existence (the worst outbreaks of smallpox occurred in the years 1870-2, 1884-5, 1893-4 and 1901-2), the objections of local residents to the establishment of hospitals in their neighbourhoods and the statutory limitation of patients to persons within the scope of the Poor Law.

    MAB was delegated responsibility for accommodating and treating different diseases during the course of its life (taken from Ayers, 1971, pp 269-270):

    Physical disorders:
    Infectious and contagious diseases
    1867 Scarlet fever; typhoid fever; typhus, smallpox. Poor law cases only before 1883
    1883; 1893; 1894 Asiatic cholera. Accommodation available in case of need.
    1888 Diphtheria. Poor law and non-pauper cases admitted from 1888. Free treatment after 1891
    1905 Plague. Accommodation available in case of need.
    1907 Cerebro-spinal meningitis
    1911 (Feb) (Poor law)
    1911 (May) Measles (non-pauper)
    1911 Whooping-cough (poor law)
    1912 Whooping-cough (non-pauper)
    1912; 1926 Puerperal fever and puerperal pyrexia
    1919 Trench fever; malaria; dysentery
    1924 Certain contagious conditions of the eye (children received through the LCC)
    1924 Zymotic enteritis
    Tuberculosis
    1897 Poor law children
    1911 Insured persons under the National Insurance Act, 1911
    1913 - 1921 Non-insured persons
    Venereal disease
    1916 Parturient women
    1917 Infants suffering from ophthalmia neonatorum
    1919 Other women and girls
    Children's diseases
    1897 Ophthalmia and ringworm (children)
    1924 Interstitial keratitis and infantile paralysis
    1925 Marasmus
    1925 - 1929 Encephalitis lethargica (cases suffering from after-effects)
    1926 Rheumatic fever; acute endocarditis, chorea
    Carcinoma
    1928 Women suffering from carcinoma of the uterus

    Mental disorders and epilepsy
    1867 Harmless poor law 'imbeciles' (adults and children, capable of improvement and non-improvable)
    1891 Suitable cases certified under the Lunacy Acts transferred form the London County 'lunatic asylums'
    1897 Feeble-minded poor law children (uncertified)
    1916 - 1917 Sane epileptics (poor law)
    1918 Cases certifies under the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act (poor law and non-pauper)
    1924 Mentally infirm persons over 70 years of age (poor law) who had not previously been certified

    Healthy classes
    1875 Poor law boys training for sea service (non-poor law boys were later received through the LCC be private arrangement
    1902 - 1910 Juvenile offenders (MAB remand homes were transferred to the LCC in 1910)
    1912 Homeless poor
    1914 - 1919 Destitute enemy aliens and war refuges

    Throughout its history the Board was kept under strict control by the central authority and approval had to be obtained from the Poor Law Board (later the Local Government Board) for all appointments of staff, purchases and allocation of property, etc. Some extra duties were placed upon the Board solely by Orders issued by the Local Government Board, e.g., the care of children suffering from ophthalmia and from contagious diseases of the skin and scalp or because of some physical or mental defect, in need of special schooling (1896); and the control and management of London casual wards (1911). The most important statutes affecting the work of the Board were:-
    The Diseases Prevention (London) Act, 1883 (46 & 47 Vic c.35, which removed the civil disabilities which had previously been attached to admission to the Board's hospitals)
    The Public Health (London) Act, 1891 (54 & 55 Vic c.76, sanctioning the treatment of fever patients who were not paupers)
    The Public Health (Prevention and Treatment of Disease) Act, 1913 (3 & 4 Geo.V c.23, sanctioning the treatment of tuberculosis patients by the Board)
    The Youthful Offenders Act, 1901 (1 Edw.VII c.20 under which the Board established remand homes)
    The Mental Deficiency Act, 1913 (3 & 4 Geo.V c.28 as a result of which the Board undertook the care of uncertified mental cases)
    The Local Authorities (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1928 (18 & 19 Geo.V c.9 under which the Board was given co-ordinating powers over the London Poor Law Unions in respect of the Metropolitan Common Poor Fund)

    Under the Local Government Act, 1929 the powers and duties of the Board were transferred to the London County Council. An explanation of terminology: At the time the Metropolitan Asylums Board there was no distinction between learning difficulties and mental disorders. The Mental Deficiency Act, 1927 uses the following terms:
    (1) The following classes of persons who are mentally defective shall be deemed to be defective within the meaning of this Act:- (a) Idiots, that is to say, persons in whose case there exists mental defectives of such a degree that they are unable to guard themselves against common physical dangers:
    (b) Imbeciles, that is to say, persons in whose case there exists mental defectiveness which, though not amounting to idiocy, is yet so pronounced that they are incapable of managing themselves or their affairs or, in the case of children, of being taught to do so:
    (c) Feeble-minded persons, that is to say, persons in whose cases there exists mental defectiveness which, though not amounting to imbecility, is yet so pronounced that they require care, supervision and control for their own protection or for the protection of others or, in the case of children, that they appear to be permanently incapable by reason of such defectiveness of receiving proper benefit from the instruction in ordinary schools:
    (d) Moral defectives, that is to say, persons in whose case there exists mental defectiveness couple with strongly vicious or criminal propensities and who require care, supervision and control for the protection of others.
    (2) For the purposes of this section, 'mental defectiveness' means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind existing before the age of eighteen years, whether arising from inherent causes or induced by disease or injury. Note: the 1913 Act said that mental deficiency had to exist from birth or from an early age.
Creator: MAB | Metropolitan Asylums Board x Metropolitan Asylums Board
Copyright: City of London
Source of Acquisition:
  • Received in multiple accessions (AC/53/063; AC/54/012; AC/55/039; ACC/2368).
Access Restrictions: These records are open to public inspection, although records containing personal information may be subject to closure periods. Records relating to patients are closed for 100 years under the Public Records Act
Physical Condition: Fit
Arrangement: The establishment of institutions in temporary buildings, and the frequent changes of use depending upon immediate needs together with the name changes make the records confusing reading, especially as, in the early years, separate committees were established for each institution.

In 1899 a rationalisation of the committee system took place and most of the institutional management committees became sub-committees of the main committees - Asylums (later Mental Hospitals), Children's Hospitals (later Infectious Hospitals) and Tuberculosis (later Sanatoriums). In the list, for the sake of clarity, all the committees have been grouped in this way from the beginning but with cross-references from the names of the institutions.

Subject files and correspondence, except for letters from the Poor Law (later the Local Government) Board appear not to have been passed over to the Council and most of the papers 'presented' to the Board and its committees were destroyed during the 1939-45 war so that minutes form the bulk of the records.

Except for the T.S. Exmouth, whose records are very full, the records of individual institutions are for the most part fragmentary. In some cases, e.g., the T.S. Exmouth where the institution continued in the same user for some years after it was taken over by the Council and the records are continuous, an ad hoc decision has been taken to keep the series together and they have been listed here, though strictly speaking from 1930 onward they are records of the LCC and not of MAB. A complete break has however been made in the committee records.
Related Material: See the Hospital Records Database on The National Archives website for the locations of hospital records. Maps detailing admissions of smallpox cases to London hospitals 1871-1885 can be found within the collection of the Greater London Council at GLC/DG/AE/ROL/92
Publication Notes:

For a general history of the Board and its work see "England's first state hospitals and the Metropolitan Asylums Board 1867 - 1930" by Gwendoline M. Ayers (Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, 1971), LMA Library reference 26.03 AYR.

MAB publications held at the LMA library have the Library classification 26.03 MAB. The minutes of the Board are on the oversize shelves in the Information Area, but the remaining material is held in store. Please ask at the Library enquiry desk for details of how to order this.
Minutes:
Minutes of the Metropolitan Asylums Board 1867 - 1930 [indexed]
Minutes of the Mental Hospitals Committee 1925 - 1930 [indexed 1925 - 1928]
Reports:
Annual reports of the Chairman of the Board 1875, 1885 - 1897/8
Annual reports of the Metropolitan Asylums Board 1898 - 1929/30 [include reports of committees]
Annual reports of the medical superintendents... for the year 1886... with observations thereon by the Statistical Committee:
Annual reports of the Statistical Committee 1887 - 1897
Other Publications:
Expenditure statements 1902 - 1913/4
Financial statements 1888 - 1906
Handbooks/Yearbooks 1884 - 1929/30 [incomplete set: see catalogue entry for full details]
"The Metropolitan Asylums Board and its work 1867 - 1930", compiled by Sir Alan Powell [published 1930]

The Library also holds annual reports and histories for a number of the Board's hospitals and institutions. Please check the Library Catalogue for full details.